Brief inventory of good practice in online tutoring
I created this brief inventory of good practice in online tutoring based on Salmon’s (2003) five stages model involving different technical skills and e-moderating activities. In doing so, I adapted some relevant changes thought all five phases as can be seen below.
- Technical preparation and access: The technical preparation is the baseline for a successful online course. It involves a thoroughly planning prior selecting appropriate platform technology to enable frequent and qualitative exchange between lecturers and students, as well students among each other. Here, technology needs to involve visual, auditory, and potentially also kinaesthetic elements. Further, it is important to enable and mark simultaneous working online (e.g., the google docs technology could be of high value). However, not every course necessary needs a highly frequent exchange; therefore the planning process is very relevant to identify what exactly is needed.
- Motivation and online socialisation: A welcoming climate and relationship building (from the beginning on and also throughout the course) is the essential to build trust and set an effective and efficient working atmosphere. Politeness, support, and facilitation are the crucial elements to be expressed here.
- Organisation of the framework: Now, it is time to be more task-oriented in managing students. Clear goal setting (e.g., using the SMART approach) and binding time scheduling needs to be expressed to set the framework for the course.
- Information exchange: Based on the technical setup of the online platform, the e-moderating activity of facilitating task understanding and supporting with the use of learning materials is particular relevant to enable information exchange. Here, lecturers need to be particularly present (i.e., also be visual) to students to provide frequent feedback (e.g., interim results) that helps the learning process. The best way is to directly comment on the students work as this individually connects lecturers’ input to students’ learning process. This time-intensive activity needs to needs to be acknowledged and clarified in the lecturer’s role (e.g., in the contract). Additionally, a peer-reviewed assessment procedure can help to strengthen the learning community.
- Knowledge construction and development: To manifest the learning results, assessments are a crucial part of the online teaching. Here it is relevant to relate to the previous interim results to indicate the learning process and enable future development.